To get the most out of a heat pump, it's important to choose an efficient model and use it properly - here's how.
- Choosing an efficient model
- Checklist for choosing a heat pump
- Using energy rating labels
- Using heat pumps wisely
Heat pumps are the most efficient way of using electricity to heat your home, but some are more efficient than others.
Choose an ENERGY STAR® qualified heat pump for superior energy efficiency This could save you $150 a year on running costs, compared to a non-qualified model.
Some heat pumps can ice up if the temperature is between 0°C and 5°C - while ENERGY STAR qualified models are tested to perform at 2°C. If you live in a cooler climate, ask your supplier if the heat pump you're looking at performs well in cooler temperatures, or check the latest ENERGY STAR qualified models.
- Insulate first - starting with your ceiling and floor. You'll be able to buy a smaller heat pump and your home will be cheaper to heat and cool effectively.
- Choose a quality brand - from a reputable supplier that offers at least a 5-year warranty on parts and labour.
- Make sure it's correctly sized - for the room you want to heat. If it's too small, it will have to work harder and cost you more to run. Your supplier will be able to discuss this with you.
- Make sure it is well-installed – ask your installer if they comply with the EECA Good practice guide to heat pump installation.
- Make sure it’s right for your climate - as the temperature drops, so does the performance of many heat pumps. A good quality unit - sized and installed correctly - should perform effectively down to minus 15°C. If you need your heat pump to perform at these temperatures, ask your heat pump supplier for advice.
- Make sure it’s right for your environment - in geothermal areas or coastal areas, heat pumps need to have suitable protection against corrosion. Ask your supplier about environmental considerations in your area.
All heat pumps have an energy rating label that helps you compare the efficiency of similar sized models. The more stars, the more energy efficient a unit is - red stars are for heating efficiency and blue stars are for cooling.
Understanding the numbers
A heat pump label has two numbers that can tell you more about the heat pump's performance:
- capacity output - the amount of heating or cooling (kW) you will get out of the heat pump (at its rated capacity, at 7˚C)
- power input - the amount of power the heat pump uses (kW) to produce the cool or hot air.
You can also use the numbers to calculate heating efficiency of a heat pump - the higher the ratio, the more efficient it is.
- Coefficient of Performance (COP) - the ratio between the heating power input and capacity output, for example 4.75 divided by 1.64 = 2.90
- Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) - the ratio between the cooling input and output, for example 4.45 divided by 1.61 = 2.76.
- Only heat when you need it - don't leave your heat pump on all day if you're not there. Use the timer to turn on the heat pump shortly before you get home and turn it off when you don’t need it.
- Only heat the space you're actually using - shut doors and curtains to keep the heat in.
- Set the thermostat to a healthy temperature - aim for a minimum of 18ºC while you’re using a space (or 20ºC if you have children, elderly or sick people in the home) and 16ºC in bedrooms overnight.
- Clean the filter regularly - inside and outside, as per the manufacturer's instructions.
- Avoid using it as an air conditioner when you can - try opening windows and doors on either side of the house to create a through-breeze. Close curtains on hot, sunny days to keep you home cool and shady.