An electric vehicle, or EV, has a different engine to a petrol or diesel fuelled car – it has a motor that is powered by a battery which is charged by plugging it into an electric power point (a bit like charging your cellphone battery).
The motor of an EV is very quiet and extremely responsive. Driving an electric car produces 80% fewer CO2 emissions than a petrol car – making an EV much better for the environment.
- Types of electric vehicle
- Electric vehicles available in New Zealand
- Advantages of electric vehicles
- Challenges of electric vehicles
- Electric vehicle battery life
- Charging electric vehicles
- Safety and other regulations for electric vehicles
- Electric vehicles programme
There are two main types of electric vehicle:
- Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) - these are a purely electric vehicle, fuelled only by the battery which is charged by plugging into an electric power point, for example the Nissan Leaf, Renault Zoe and Tesla S. The Renault Kangoo and Nissan eNV200 vans are also available in New Zealand.
- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) – these have two engines – one fuelled by a battery which is charged by plugging into an electric power point, the other engine is fuelled from a fuel tank and generally uses petrol or diesel. Examples include the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, BMW i3 (range extender model) and Audi e-tron.
Hybrids that you can’t plug-in are more fuel efficient than a comparable petrol car but they are not electric vehicles. Their batteries are only charged by re-capturing energy when braking or from electricity generated by the engine. The Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are examples of these kinds of hybrids.
Mass produced electric cars have been on sale to the New Zealand public since 2011, both new and as second-hand imports.
Electric vehicles are often more expensive to purchase, especially if buying new, but cost far less to operate than petrol and diesel vehicles - the equivalent of paying 30c per litre for petrol. This means that if you look at the total cost of owning a vehicle, rather than just the one-off purchase price, an EV is a great option for your next car.
There are many reasons for you to choose an electric vehicle over a petrol or diesel vehicle:
- Cheaper to run – the cost of charging an EV is equivalent to paying around 30 cents per litre for petrol.*
- Charge up at home – EVs can be charged anywhere there is a power point, just like charging your cellphone. You can wake up to a ‘full tank’ every morning by plugging in at home, and never have to go out of your way to a petrol station again.
- Pollution-free driving - BEVs don’t have a tailpipe and produce no exhaust emissions that cause local air pollution.
- Noise reduction - EVs are quieter than petrol or diesel vehicles.
- 80% reduction in CO2 emissions in New Zealand - this significant reduction in emissions is because 80% of New Zealand’s electricity is generated from renewable sources. There are also many other advantages to using this home-grown energy compared with using imported fossil fuels.
- Fewer lifecycle emissions - even when you take into account raw material extraction, battery manufacture, vehicle manufacture and shipping, BEVs emit 60% fewer climate change emissions over their full life cycle than for petrol vehicles.
- More efficient - EVs can convert well over 90% of energy from their batteries into moving the car. This compares to 20% - 30% energy conversion for a petrol or diesel vehicle.
* Estimate based on a residential off-peak charge rate, and will vary.
- Price – new EVs tend to cost more to buy than equivalent conventional cars, but much lower running costs will help offset the initial higher price tag. Used import electric cars can compare well with the price of equivalent used petrol or diesel vehicles.
- Range - most EVs don’t travel as far on a full-charge as petrol or diesel vehicles travel on a full tank. However, the average daily travel by car in New Zealand is less than 29 km – easily within the range of EVs, and 90% of all journeys are under 90 km. As battery and vehicle technology improves, and fast charging stations become commonplace, range will become less of an issue. If you are concerned about range, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle may be a better option for you, but you won’t get the significant reduction in maintenance cost that you will for a purely electric vehicle.
- Battery re-use and recycling – if an EV battery reaches the end of its vehicle life, it may still have a useful second life, for example storing electricity from solar PV panels. Manufacturers of electric vehicles already have recycling programmes in place. Members of the Motor Industry Association of New Zealand have committed to a code of practice to have suitable systems in place for the use, capture, return, refurbishment, reuse, recycling or disposal of EV and hybrid batteries with the aim of no batteries ending up in landfills.
Electric vehicle (EV) batteries are sophisticated pieces of equipment designed to last many years.
EV owners can get the best out of their batteries and extend their life by looking after them.
EV manufacturers are increasingly offering battery warranties of five to 10 years or more.
Like any product, owners can expect their EV batteries to last well beyond the end of the warranty period.
The ability for a battery to hold a full charge reduces over time (and the associated range of the vehicle reduces), but that doesn’t stop the car from working well.
To help EV owners get the most out of their batteries, we have highlighted some recommended practices to follow and have developed a best practice guide.
How can an EV’s battery life be improved?
There are two ways that an EV battery can gradually fall in performance:
- the way the EV is parked and stored, this is known as calendar degradation
- the way the EV is driven and recharged, this is known as cyclic degradation
You can slow these rates of degradation through some recommended practices. These include:
- Learn to drive your EV efficiently to minimise stress on your battery. This will give you the best daily range, and help your battery last longer.
- Minimise the use of frequent fast charging.
- Minimise recharging to full every day unless you need to.
- New Zealand’s temperate climate is good for maximising battery life, but in times of extreme temperatures, try to park in the shade or indoors.
- In very cold weather (i.e. below freezing), plug in when you can to take advantage of your EV’s battery thermal management systems which will regulate the battery’s temperature so the cold weather doesn’t negatively impact on the battery life.
- When storing your EV for an extended period, follow the instructions in your manual on how to care for your battery.
- Always get your EV serviced by an authorised person and never attempt it yourself.
- Follow manufacturer’s recommendations regarding regular check-ups.
For more information on how to look after your EV battery, see our guide below for some simple tips and check the owner’s manual, which are available online, for more detailed advice. It should explain warranty conditions to ensure you get the full protection of your manufacturer’s warranty as well as the maximum useful battery life.
If your EV battery ever needs replacing, your qualified service provider can do it. They might even offer you credit for your old battery, as there is value in repurposing batteries into other applications or recycling them to reclaim the raw materials inside.
Does battery degradation undermine the overall cost of owning an EV?
Research based on the Nissan Leaf, New Zealand’s most popular EV, shows that, even if you need to replace the battery, an EV can still compete with the petrol car in terms of overall cost.
The cost of charging an EV is like buying petrol for 30 cents a litre.
The cheapest and easiest way to charge your EV is by plugging it in overnight at home. You can do this by plugging into a standard power point using the portable charging cable that normally comes with your EV, or plug into a fixed charging unit. An overnight charge will cost up to $3 per 100km.
A fixed wall mounted or pedestal charger that is permanently wired in is the most convenient way to charge but it may add a cost to your initial EV purchase. There are indoor and outdoor options available to suit where your EV is parked at home and with the right charging connection for your EV.
These fixed chargers make it quick to plug in when you get home and easy to time charging to start when the overnight tariff begins (check if your electricity retailer has an EV tariff and at what time it starts). They can also make it easy to keep cables tidy, and means the portable charging cable can stay in the car boot for when you’re out and about.
If you don’t want to, or can’t, install a fixed charging unit at your home, charging your EV can be as easy as plugging your portable charging cable into a wall socket in your garage or an outdoor rated power point.
If you’re out and about and want to charge at a public EV charging station, you can find one near you using the Plugshare app or website. Plugshare allows you to find a charging station with the correct plug type for your car and by speed of charge available (e.g. fast chargers show up with an orange icon).
Electric vehicles have to meet the same regulations as any other vehicles on the road.
- Road safety - like all other cars, electric cars have to meet safety standards and other road-worthiness requirements to ensure the safety of passengers and other road users.
- Electrical safety regulations - any chargers that use mains electricity must meet New Zealand's Electrical Safety regulations and Standards.
- Road user charges (RUCs) - to encourage people to buy EVs, the Government has provided an exemption on RUCs until 2021. The exemption is valued at around $600 per year.
In September 2016 the Electric Vehicles website was launched.
In May 2016 the Government announced the electric vehicles programme.